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Inclusions

 

Although inclusions in most of the gemstones are concidered as the faults which lower the price of the stone and they are not popular for many people, they are the best friends for us,  gemologists.  So many of the secrets of the gemstones disclosed under a microscope.

The inclusions tell us if an emerald is a synthetic or natural, if it is enhanced or not, and even sometimes the origin of the stone.

I want to let you see what the inclusions tell me with the pictures down below. 

 

THE LANGUAGE OF  INCLUSIONS

I have taken the pictures through my microscope with Nicon Camera.

Natural

Inclusions

Mineral-crystal:

Mica, actinolite/tremolite, calsite, pyrite, talc, feldspar, picotite.

In natural beryl the clusters of phenakite crystals.

Liquid inclusions: Healing cracks, hollow tubes, two or three-phase inclusions.

 

Tube inclusions

 

Two phase inclusions have liquid with a gas bubble in it. Three phase inclusions have also a crystal inclusion in the liquid. 

Structural characteristics: These are growth lines and color zoning.

 

The parallel growth lines creating a "Venetian blind" effect are common  in synthetic emeralds. But also you can see them in natural emeralds like the one above.  

Some characteristic inclusions which tell us the origin of the stone:

Colombia: Three phase inclusions,growth zoning which is parallel to optic axis or follow the crystal shape, mineral- crystal inclusions; pyrite, parisite, calsite etc.

Rusia: Actinolite needles are the most common.

Zimbabwe: Tremolite needle inclusions

India: Oriented two phase inclusions

Zambia: Mica, oriented two phase inclusions

                 

These oriented two phase inlusions are special to Zambia and India.

Synthetic

Inclusions

Hydrothermal synthetics:

-Phenakite inclusions,seed plates, inhomogenous growth structure, residues of iron oxide. 

 

This type of inclusion is called   'nail head'.  Phenakite crystal is followed by a long air bubble.

Structural characteristics: growth lines

Structural characteristics in hydrothermal synthetic emerald.

In hydrothermal synthetics other then phenakite 'nail head'   needles  we  should   also  look  for   the inhomogenious structural characteristics. The optical and physical characteristics of the hydrothermal synthetic emerals are the same as natural. Therefore we should check the stone under the microscope in liquid. 

 

This structural growth lines  in this synthetic emerald resemble to the natural's at the left column. 

- Flux synthetics have the flux fingerprint inclusions called 'whispy veils', or coarse flux blubs. Sometimes two phase flux inclusions; but in these inclusions flux looks dark color.

 

Flux inclusions are not always very big and pronounced  as seen here, they are mostly thin rain like or veil like.

- The edges of the fingerprint inclusions are very pronounced..

As you see here the edges of the flux fingerprint inclusions are straight and pronounced.

 

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