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.

Diamond and Simulants

Gemstones

RI

Optic

character

Disp.

UV

SG

Hardness

Characteristics/with loupe

Characteristics/under a microscope

Spectra

Additional information and tests

 

 

 

Diamond

 

 

 

 

 

 

2,417

 

 

 

 

 

 

SR

 

 

 

 

 

high

.044

 

 

 

 

if there is UV fluorescence it is mostly blue

LW-SW

LW is always stronger

 

 

 

3.52

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

 

 

 

 

 

adamantine luster

 

fine breaks in the girdle area, cleavage, natural, extra facets, naturals with trigons, steplike fracture, polish marks in different directions, angular crystal inclusions,sharp facet edges

 

Cape spectrum

violet area 415.5nm band  

 

high relief in methylene iodide liquid, 

hardness pencil,

termal conductivity probe

 

 

 

Synthetic rutil

 

 

2,616

-2.903

 

 

 

DR

 

 

very high

.330

 

 

 

no reaction

 

 

 

4.26

 

 

 

6-61/2

 

bright vitreous luster,

rounded facet edges, 

doubled facet edges, 

strong dispersion

strong doubling,

polish marks in same directions,

air bubbles

 

 

cut at 430nm  

 

yellowish colour,

high relief in methylene iodide liquid, 

high dispersion,

hardness pencil,

termal conductivity probe

Strontium

Titanate

 

 

2,409

 

 

SR

 

very high

.190

 

 

no reaction

 

 

5.13

 

 

5-6

 

bright vitreous luster,

rounded facet edges,  

strong dispersion

polish marks

polish marks in same directions,

air bubbles

 

none

 

high relief in methylene iodide liquid, 

high dispersion, 

hardness pencil,

termal conductivity probe

Cubic

Zirconia

 

2,15

 

 

SR

 

high

.060

 

either no reaction or yellow-orange

SW

 

5.95

 

8 1/4-

8 1/2

 

bright vitreous luster,

 strong dispersion

 weak see through

tiny air bubbles called stringers,  whitish flux like inclusions

 

none

 

high relief in methylene iodide liquid, 

diamond pen

termal tester

 

GGG

 

 

 

 

1.970

 

 

 

SR

 

 

high

.045

 

either no reaction or

medium orange LW, from medium to strong pinkish orange LW

 

7.05

 

 

 

6 1/2

 

bright vitreous luster,

see through

rounded facet edges 

polish marks, triangle or hexagonal metalic inclusions, air bubbles,polish marks in same directions

 

 

none

 

medium relief in methylene iodide liquid, 

brownish colour, 

hardness pencil,

termal conductivity probe

 

Zircon

 

 

1.925-

1,984

 

DR 

 

medium to high

.038

 

either no reaction or

weak yellowish LW-SW

 

4.70 

 

 

7 1/2

 

subadamantine luster

worn out facet edges

see through

strong doubling, triangular inclusions,

polish marks in same directions

 

653.5 nm

diagnostic

 

medium relief in methylene iodide liquid, 

hardness pencil,

termal conductivity probe

 

YAG

 

 

1,833

 

 

SR

 

medium

.028

 

either no reaction or

medium orange LW-SW

4.55

 

 

8 1/4

 

bright vitreous luster,

see through

weak dispersion

 

polish marks in same directions, air bubbles or tubular inclusions

 

 

none

 

in methylene iodide liquid the  stone  almost dissapears, diamond pen

termal tester

Synthetic sapphire

 

1.762-

1.770

 

DR

low

.018

either no reaction or

weak bluish white SW

4.00

 

 

9

 

 

strong see through

weak dispersion

polish marks in same directions, air bubbles,

weak doubling

 

none

 

in methylene iodide liquid the  stone  almost dissapears, 

hardness pencil,

termal conductivity probe

 

Synthetic

Spinel

 

 

 

1.730

 

 

SR

 

 

low

.0.20

 

from strong to very strong chalky white or yellowish SW

 

 

3.64

 

 

 

8

 

vitreous to bright

strong see through

weak dispersion

 

polish marks in same directions, air bubbles or tubular inclusions

 

 

none

 

 

in methylene iodide liquid the  stone almost dissapears, 

hardness pencil,

termal conductivity probe

 

 

Glass

 

 

 

1.48to

1.70

 

 

 

SR

 

 

low to high

mostly

.037

 

 

 

 

variable, if any stronger in SW

 

 

ekseri

2.30dan

4.50e

 

 

5-61/2

 

 

vitreous to dull

molded facets, 

see through;much

rounded facet edges,

poor luster

air bubbles, swirl marks,

polish marks

concoidal fracture, 

orange peel surface condition,

polish marks in same directions

 

none

 

 

 

dissapears in  methylene iodide liquid,

hardness pencil,

termal conductivity probe

 

 

Doublets

 

 

Different RI on crown and pavillon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

variable

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

crown and pavillon have different luster, line on the girdle, looking table down on a white surface

 red ring effect (garnet and glass doublets)

concoidal fracture.

 

different in crown and pavillon

 

 

different in crown and pavillon if there is any

 

 

crown and pavillion looks different in methylene iodide liquid, most of the time only separation plane shows,

hardness pencil,

termal conductivity probe

Synthetic Moissanite

2.648

-2.691

 

DR

 very high

 

 

 

 

3.22

 

9.5

 

metalic, bright vitreous  luster

doubling, typical needle inclusions,

 

 

moissanite tester

click on

Synthetic Moissanite